Locks

The following can be imported from django_mysql.locks.

class Lock(name, acquire_timeout=10.0, using=None)[source]

MySQL can act as a locking server for arbitrary named locks (created on the fly) via its GET_LOCK function - sometimes called ‘User Locks’ since they are user-specific, and don’t lock tables or rows. They can be useful for your code to limit its access to some shared resource.

This class implements a user lock and acts as either a context manager (recommended), or a plain object with acquire and release methods similar to threading.Lock. These call the MySQL functions GET_LOCK, RELEASE_LOCK, and IS_USED_LOCK to manage it.

The lock is only re-entrant (acquirable multiple times) on MariaDB 10.0+.

MySQL before 5.7, and MariaDB before 10.0, only allowed one lock per connection. On those versions and later, you can hold multiple locks.

Basic usage:

from django_mysql.exceptions import TimeoutError
from django_mysql.locks import Lock

try:
    with Lock('my_unique_name', acquire_timeout=2.0):
        mutually_exclusive_process()
except TimeoutError:
    print "Could not get the lock"

For more information on user locks refer to the GET_LOCK documentation on MySQL or MariaDB.

Warning

As the documentation warns, user locks are unsafe to use if you have replication running and your replication format (binlog_format) is set to STATEMENT. Most environments have binlog_format set to MIXED because it can be more performant, but do check.

name

This is a required argument.

Specifies the name of the lock. Since user locks share a global namespace on the MySQL server, it will automatically be prefixed with the name of the database you use in your connection from DATABASES and a full stop, in case multiple apps are using different databases on the same server.

MySQL 5.7+ enforces a maximum length on the total name (including the DB prefix that Django-MySQL adds) of 64 characters. MariaDB doesn’t enforce any limit. The practical limit on MySQL <5.6 or MariaDB is maybe 1 million characters or more, so most sane uses should be fine.

acquire_timeout=10.0

The time in seconds to wait to acquire the lock, as will be passed to GET_LOCK(). Defaults to 10 seconds.

using=None

The connection alias from DATABASES to use. Defaults to Django’s DEFAULT_DB_ALIAS to use your main database connection.

is_held()[source]

Returns True iff a query to IS_USED_LOCK() reveals that this lock is currently held.

holding_connection_id()[source]

Returns the MySQL CONNECTION_ID() of the holder of the lock, or None if it is not currently held.

acquire()[source]

For using the lock as a plain object rather than a context manager, similar to threading.Lock.acquire. Note you should normally use try / finally to ensure unlocking occurs.

Example usage:

from django_mysql.locks import Lock

lock = Lock('my_unique_name')
lock.acquire()
try:
    mutually_exclusive_process()
finally:
    lock.release()
release()[source]

Also for using the lock as a plain object rather than a context manager, similar to threading.Lock.release. For example, see above.

classmethod held_with_prefix(prefix, using=DEFAULT_DB_ALIAS)[source]

Queries the held locks that match the given prefix, for the given database connection. Returns a dict of lock names to the CONNECTION_ID() that holds the given lock.

Example usage:

>>> Lock.held_with_prefix('Author')
{'Author.1': 451, 'Author.2': 457}

Note

Works with MariaDB 10.0.7+ only, when the metadata_lock_info plugin is loaded. You can install this in a migration using the InstallSOName operation, like so:

from django.db import migrations
from django_mysql.operations import InstallSOName


class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    dependencies = []

    operations = [
        # Install https://mariadb.com/kb/en/mariadb/metadata_lock_info/
        InstallSOName('metadata_lock_info')
    ]
class TableLock(write=None, read=none, using=None)[source]

MySQL allows you to gain a table lock to prevent modifications to the data during reads or writes. Most applications don’t need to do this since transaction isolation should provide enough separation between operations, but occasionally this can be useful, especially in data migrations or if you are using a non-transactional storage such as MyISAM.

This class implements table locking and acts as either a context manager (recommended), or a plain object with acquire() and release() methods similar to threading.Lock. It uses the transactional pattern from the MySQL manual to ensure all the necessary steps are taken to lock tables properly. Note that locking has no timeout and blocks until held.

Basic usage:

from django_mysql.locks import TableLock

with TableLock(read=[MyModel1], write=[MyModel2]):
    fix_bad_instances_of_my_model2_using_my_model1_data()

Docs: MySQL / MariaDB.

read

A list of models or raw table names to lock at the READ level. Any models using multi-table inheritance will also lock their parents.

write

A list of models or raw table names to lock at the WRITE level. Any models using multi-table inheritance will also lock their parents.

using=None

The connection alias from DATABASES to use. Defaults to Django’s DEFAULT_DB_ALIAS to use your main database connection.

acquire()[source]

For using the lock as a plain object rather than a context manager, similar to threading.Lock.acquire. Note you should normally use try / finally to ensure unlocking occurs.

Example usage:

from django_mysql.locks import TableLock

table_lock = TableLock(read=[MyModel1], write=[MyModel2])
table_lock.acquire()
try:
    fix_bad_instances_of_my_model2_using_my_model1_data()
finally:
    table_lock.release()
release()[source]

Also for using the lock as a plain object rather than a context manager, similar to threading.Lock.release. For example, see above.

Note

Transactions are not allowed around table locks, and an error will be raised if you try and use one inside of a transaction. A transaction is created to hold the locks in order to cooperate with InnoDB. There are a number of things you can’t do whilst holding a table lock, for example accessing tables other than those you have locked - see the MySQL/MariaDB documentation for more details.

Note

Table locking works on InnoDB tables only if the innodb_table_locks is set to 1. This is the default, but may have been changed for your environment.